In July, 69-year-old Jorge Murrillo pled guilty in federal district court in Miami to conspiring to violate the Clean Air Act (CAA) by importing over 300,000 kilograms of illegal R-22, worth over $1.5 million, into the United States from China. R-22 is a widely used refrigerant for residential heat pump and air conditioning systems.

The CAA regulates air pollutants, including ozone-depleting substances such as R-22. The CAA and its implemented regulations established a schedule to phase out the production and importation of ozone-depleting substances, with a complete ban starting in 2030. To meet its obligations under an international treaty to reduce its consumption of ozone depleting substances, the United States issued baseline consumption allowances for the production and importation of R-22 to individuals and companies. To legally import R-22, one must hold an unexpended consumption allowance.

According to court records and a Factual Statement filed in Court, Murrillo smuggled large quantities of R-22 into the United States to sell on the black market. Murrillo and his co-defendant would negotiate with a Chinese manufacturer for the purchase of large quantities of R-22 and then import them into South Florida ports. At no point did Murrillo or his companies or associates hold unexpended consumption allowances that would have allowed the legal importation of R-22. Between June and August 2007, Murrillo conspired to, and otherwise smuggled, approximately 309,536 kilograms of HCFC with a market value of $1,525,670, into the U.S. Murrillo resided outside the United States from the time of his indictment in 2012 until his arrest in Miami in May 2022.

Murrillo’s co-defendant, Norberto Guada, was previously convicted, in 2012, of illegally importing R-22, and served a federal prison sentence. Senior U.S. District Judge Donald L. Graham has set Murrillo’s sentencing hearing for September 20 in federal district in Miami. Murrillo faces up to five years in prison.

EPA, Criminal Investigation Division, and HSI Miami investigated the case. Customs and Border Protection assisted. Related court documents and information may be found on the website of the District Court for the Southern District of Florida at or at, under case number 12-cr-20514.