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The Maryland team will soon begin testing of a prototype system, with economic stimulus funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The new grant is part of a program designed to bring game-changing technologies to market.
“Air conditioning represents the largest share of home electric bills in the summer, so this new technology could have significant consumer impact, as well as an important environmental benefit,” sais Eric Wachsman, director of the University of Maryland Energy Research Center (UMERC).
“The approach is expected to increase cooling efficiency 175 percent, reduce U.S. carbon dioxide emissions by 250 million metric tons per year, and replace liquid refrigerants that can cause environmental degradation in their own right,” he added.
The lead researchers on the project, Ichiro Takeuchi, Manfred Wuttig, and Jun Cui, materials science engineers in Maryland’s A. James Clark School of Engineering, have developed a solid coolant to take the place of fluids used in conventional refrigeration and air conditioning compressors. According to the researchers, their system represents a fundamental technological advance.
In the next phase of research, the team will test the commercial viability of their smart metal for space cooling applications. The 0.01-ton prototype is intended to replace conventional vapor compression cooling technology. Instead of fluids, it uses a solid-state material - their thermoelastic shape memory alloy.
This two-state alloy alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a compressor-based system, but uses far less energy, the Maryland team explained. Also, it has a smaller operational footprint than conventional technology, and avoids the use of fluids with high global warming potential.
General Electric Global Research and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are partnering with the University of Maryland on the project.
The DOE has given the team $500,000 - one of only 43 grants nationwide - as part of its Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) program, designed to advance out-of-the-box, transformational research from the laboratory to marketplace. The grants are funded with money from the federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
“These grants are highly competitive and require a demonstration that the technology has genuine commercial potential,” Wachsman said. “This represents a significant investment in the state of Maryland and the development of its green economy.”
Publication date: 08/30/2010