As heat energy is removed from a substance, its molecular activity will decrease; as heat energy is added, its molecular activity will increase. The intensity of this molecular activity affects the temperature of the substance.
Homes, restaurants, bars, and businesses rely on clear, clean ice for many applications. Ice is considered a food source, and the water that makes the ice must be of good quality. Good quality water will produce a crystal-clear, hard piece of ice.
The function of coils in heating and cooling systems is to transfer heat from one medium to another, either extracting heat from a building and expelling it outside or vice versa. Depending on the application, different technologies are available to ensure thermal energy is transferred as efficiently and cost-effectively as possible.
One of the main components of any refrigeration or air conditioning system is the condenser. As its name indicates, the condenser condenses refrigerant vapor sent to it from the compressor. However, the condenser also performs other important functions, too.
The following formula has been around the North American hydronics industry for a long time: Btuh = 500 x gpm x delta T. It can be used to estimate the rate of heat transfer into or out of a device that has a stream of water flowing through it at a known flow rate, and with a measured temperature change between the inlet and outlet of that water stream.
Making ammonia work in traditional HFC territory, trying transcritical CO2 systems in ice rinks, and examining ways to apply refrigeration principles to heat transfer rates were just three topics of 13 papers (five in Spanish) presented at the most recent Industrial Refrigeration Conference and Expo.